Business Modelling

Part 1

Question 1

In cases where the conditions are right, events usually bring about state transitions. In particular, an event usually brings about a transition if the guard is met and the effects are achieved. Examples of events include:

i)                    A signal event: A case in which the system receives  a signal from outside

ii)                  A timing event: For instance, if a timeout occurs and a state of transition can no longer be achieved.

iii)                A call event: In cases where a system operation is invoked.

Methods in a class diagram, would entail the means through which an event precipitates an action

Question 2

Concurrent states refer to states that are independent of each other and are able to complete at different times. Such states are often represented separated by a dashed line as depicted below\


A concurrent state differs from a nested state in that a nested state must have an initial stage and a final stage.

Question 3

Dynamic models are used to model and define different states of an object during its lifetime. Dynamic models, therefore, depict different states that are changed by events. In addition, diagrams that fall under this system, such as the state chart diagram, are only used to model systems that are reactive. The diagrams are often used to depict the behavior of the system. Other examples that fall under this model include activity diagrams, sequence diagrams and process models. Sequence diagrams are similar to state chart diagrams in that they depict different states. However, unlike state chart diagrams, the sequence diagrams depict the use case of a given application starting with an actor, while the state chart diagram shows the various states that are valid for an object.

Question 4

Static Diagrams: Class diagrams are common examples of static diagrams as they are used to depict the structure of a system, providing an object oriented view that is made up of classes, interfaces, collaborations and associations.

Dynamic: State charts offer the prime example of dynamic diagrams because they are used to model changes in the system. Particularly the changes in the states within the system occurring as a result of trigger events. The dynamic nature of the diagram is due to the fact that it displays undergoing a process of change.

Question 5

State chart diagrams allow for the modeling of the reactive nature of the business to internal and external stimuli, which helps in predictions that eventually shape the strategy adopted by the business. It essentially helps businesses to anticipate how the developed models are likely to react within the real world business environment, hence allowing for timely adjustments and the development of an optimal system of operation.



Question 6

i)                    Class diagram

ii)                  Deployment diagram

iii)                State chart diagram depicting concurrent states

iv)                Case diagram

v)                  Sequence diagram

Question 7

Developing a requirements model entails generating a set of requirements that can be manipulated or displayed in a number of ways. The differentiated views can be generated by customizing columns, selecting requirements or changing the traceability matrix.

Question 8

It is not advisable to proceed directly to designing and implementing after eliciting requirements because there is a need to develop the architecture. Development of architecture entails division into modules and module interfaces, a critical step in the software development process. The main aim of this stage is to ensure that the requirements needed for the development of the software are clearly appraised and assessed, and the project is well organized into its constituent parts.







Part 2

Question C

Joint Requirements Planning (JRP) assists in determining user requirements using joint planning sessions of all software users and other personnel in the information technology departments. The main difference between this method and the Regular Requirements Planning is the arrangements of informal workshops which provide an opportunity for people to discuss the objectives, responsibilities and any other critical information relating to a project. Though both methods require planning, the JRP is more intensive and involves more participants compared to the other methods. The participants in the JRP the participants in the project are mainly managers and other organizational members who have adequate knowledge about the project. They are all interviewed by a common facilitator.

Question 3 A

Activity diagram are mostly preferred to case description because the language use is simpler and easily to understand for both the participants and the end user of the project. Case narratives or description are also quite complex. This is because of the need to include numerous alternative scenarios which make them consist of several pages. It is also difficult to ensure accuracy, completeness and validity is maintained at all stages of the project due to the lengthy text narratives. Therefore, the activity diagram is preferred for describing what actions should be taken and when they should be carried out. For instance, they can effectively be used in a project that requires complicated sequential algorithm or during modeling applications of parallel activities.



Question 3B

A class diagram is a structure diagram which is quite similar to the Instance diagram. It shows the structure of an already designed system at different levels, such as class and interface. It also describes the different features, constraints and relationships of the system. However, the Instance diagram is regarded as an instance level class diagram because it shows the instance details of the classes and objects which specifications of different values and links to the system.

Class diagram

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Instance Diagram





Question 3C

The Rational Unified Process in development methodologies captures the best practices in software developments. By combining different modern software the process is suitable for most projects and organizations. Its main advantage is that it recognizes the shortcoming of the traditional waterfall approach which is leaving the main team members idle for a long period of time. Even though the Rational Unified Process is preferred for maximization of all resources and personnel, it introduces a high risk because testing is done at the end of the project Lifecycle. Other strengths of the RUP include: the ability to maintain an iterative development team, facilitate reuse of products, correct errors over different iterations and developers can improve their skill as the project is going on. On the other hand, Traditional Methodology is preferred for software engineering. This is because of its strengths in having clear goals for each stage which discourages turning back and also the method is rigid. In addition, it is highly preferred in managerial control because each phase has strict deadlines which sure all products are delivered on time.

Question 4A

The term process is term used to refer to a number of activities that are aimed to produce a specific service or product. There are several types of process for instance: business process and software process. Business process is a collection of related tasks that produce a service or product for a certain customer or customers. It is aimed at adding value to the organization and the customer. There three types of business processes: management process which involves, staffing, coordinating, directing, planning and organizing. Operational processes include five main stages namely: purchasing, marketing, advertising, manufacturing and sales. The supporting process is also essential in business development: includes accounting, recruitment, call center and technical support. Software development differs from business process because it involves a structure that is aimed at development of software product. The two processes are equally essential in business. Business models connect the two by developing software to enhance the efficiency of the business processes such as accounting and marketing.

Question 4B

Process architecture is a general process systems commonly used in computer software, hardware and networks to accomplish a business process. The process requires inputs, outputs, energy and time for it to be successful. The following is an illustration of the most common process architecture.









The deployment unit assembles all process components in preparation for the system ensures that the components run using the correct configuration. The business object is also essential in the process because it maintains all trade receivables and payables. It also contains details of due payment and manages due clearance. The process component is mainly essential in the approval of different transactions. It monitors that all business process especially clearing, payment and tax declaration are accurately done.


Question 4 C

Business Process Reengineering is aimed to help organizations rethink how they do business in order to reduce operational costs, improve customer service and attain competitive advantage. Companies require to re-engineer after identifying a failure. Failures exist in managerial operations or mission establishment, poor decision making process, ineffective communication and slow technological advancement. However, organizations can easily recognize failure earlier to avoid huge losses by identifying slow growth in profits, customer feedbacks and inability to compete effectively in the industry.

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